Simultaneous Hydrodistillation-Steam Distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Citrus aurantium from Morocco, Major Terpenes: Impact on Biological Activities
Kharraf, S. E., Faleiro, M. L., Abdellah, F., El-Guendouz, S., El Hadrami, E. M., Miguel, M. G. (2021)
Interest in the use of essential oils (EOs) in the biomedical and food industries have seen growing over the last decades due to their richness in bioactive compounds. The challenges in developing an EO extraction process that assure an efficient levels of monoterpenes with impact on biological activities have driven the present study, in which the EO extraction process of rosemary, lavender and citrus was performed by simultaneous hydrodistillation–steam distillation, and the influence of EO composition on biological activities, namely antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activity, were evaluated. The EO yields of combinations were generally higher than the individual plants (R. officinalis (Ro), L. angustifolia (La), and C. aurantium (Ca)) extracted by the conventional hydrodistillation. The EOs obtained by this process generally had a better capacity for scavenging the free radicals, inhibiting α-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase activities than the individual EOs. The combination of EOs did not improve the ability for scavenging peroxide hydrogen or the capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase activity. The antioxidant activity or the enzyme inhibition activity could not only be attributed to their major compounds because they presented lower activities than the EOs. The chemical composition of the combination Ro:La:Ca, at the ratio 1/6:1/6:2/3, was enriched in 1,8-cineole, linalool, and linalyl acetate and resulted in lower MIC values for all tested strains in comparison with the ratio 1/6:2/3:1/6 that was deprived on those components. The biofilm formation of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was impaired by the combination Ro:La:Ca at a sub-inhibitory concentration.
Keywords: antioxidant activity; enzyme inhibitory activity; antimicrobial activity; anti-biofilm formation
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