Sensory Evaluation and Spectra Evolution of Two Kiwifruit Cultivars during Cold Storage
Afonso, Andreia M.; Guerra, R.; Cruz, Sandra; Antunes, M. Dulce (2023)
Kiwifruit consumption has increased due to its rich nutritional properties. Although ‘Hayward’ continues to be the main cultivar, others, such as yellow fleshed ‘Jintao’, are of increasing interest. The objective of this research was to evaluate the acceptability and storage performance of these two cultivars. Sensory evaluation of green ‘Hayward’ and yellow ‘Jintao’ kiwifruit were performed along cold storage for three seasons/years to follow the organoleptic characteristics through ripening, as well as the acquisition of their spectra by Vis-NIR. For ‘Jintao’ were performed two sensory evaluations per year at 2.5- and 4.5-months’ storage and for ‘Hayward’ at 2.5-, 4.5- and 5.5-months’ storage. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney test and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA were performed to test the significant differences between the mean ranks among the storage time. A non-metric multidimensional scaling plot method using the ALSCAL algorithm in a seven-point Likert scale was applied to determine the relationships in the data, and a new approach using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was tested. The last revealed that, for both cultivars, sweetness, acidity and texture were the variables with better scores for General flavor. Aroma was also important on ‘Jintao’. A strong correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and reflectance was found for both cultivars, with the 635–780 nm range being the most important. Regarding firmness, a good correlation with reflectance spectra was observed, particularly in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit. Based on these results, Vis-NIR can be an objective alternative to explore for determination of the optimum eating-ripe stage.
Keywords: kiwifruit; Vis-NIR spectroscopy; ripening; sensory evaluation; ROC analysis
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