Designing a fruit identification algorithm in orchard conditions to develop robots using video processing and majority voting based on Hybrid Artificial Neural Network
Sabzi, S., Pourdarbani, R., Kalantari, D., Panagopoulos, T. (2020).
The first step in identifying fruits on trees is to develop garden robots for different purposes such as fruit harvesting and spatial specific spraying. Due to the natural conditions of the fruit orchards and the unevenness of the various objects throughout it, usage of the controlled conditions is very difficult. As a result, these operations should be performed in natural conditions, both in light and in the background. Due to the dependency of other garden robot operations on the fruit identification stage, this step must be performed precisely. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to design an identification algorithm in orchard conditions using a combination of video processing and majority voting based on different hybrid artificial neural networks. The different steps of designing this algorithm were: (1) Recording video of different plum orchards at different light intensities; (2) converting the videos produced into its frames; (3) extracting different color properties from pixels; (4) selecting effective properties from color extraction properties using hybrid artificial neural network-harmony search (ANN-HS); and (5) classification using majority voting based on three classifiers of artificial neural network-bees algorithm (ANN-BA), artificial neural network-biogeography-based optimization (ANN-BBO), and artificial neural network-firefly algorithm (ANN-FA). Most effective features selected by the hybrid ANN-HS consisted of the third channel in hue saturation lightness (HSL) color space, the second channel in lightness chroma hue (LCH) color space, the first channel in L*a*b* color space, and the first channel in hue saturation intensity (HSI). The results showed that the accuracy of the majority voting method in the best execution and in 500 executions was 98.01% and 97.20%, respectively. Based on different performance evaluation criteria of the classifiers, it was found that the majority voting method had a higher performance
Keywords: artificial intelligence; precision agriculture; agricultural robot; optimization algorithm; online operation; segmentation.
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