Batch Studies on the Biodegradation Potential of Paracetamol, Fluoxetine and 17α-Ethinylestradiol by the Micrococcus yunnanensis Strain TJPT4 Recovered from Marine Organisms

Palma, T., Valentine, J., Gomes, V., Faleiro, M.L., Costa, M. (2022)


The emerging pollutants paracetamol, fluoxetine and ethinylestradiol are inefficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments, entering in aquatic environments in which they are hazardous. Aiming for the obtention of bacteria with the capacity for environmental bioremediation, eight bacteria were isolated from two consortia recovered from Hymedesmia versicolor and Filograna implexa marine organisms which exhibited a high-paracetamol-removal capacity. The isolates that displayed the ability to grow in the presence of 100 mg/L paracetamol as the sole carbon source were assigned to Paenibacillus, Micrococcus and Microbacterium genera. The isolate assigned to the Micrococcus yunnanensis strain TJPT4 presented the best performance, degrading 93 ± 4% of 15 mg/L paracetamol as the sole carbon source after 360 h, and was also apparently able to degrade the produced metabolites. This strain was able to remove 82.1 ± 0.9% of 16 mg/L fluoxetine after 504 h, mainly by adsorption, but apparently a biodegradation contribution also occurred. This strain was able to remove 66.6 ± 0.2% of 13 mg/L 17α-ethinylestradiol after 360 h. As far as is known, Micrococcus yunnanensis is for the first time recovered/identified in Filograna implexa, presenting a high drug removal efficiency, thereby becoming a great candidate for treatment processes (e.g., bioaugmentation), especially in the presence of saline intrusions.

Keywords: paracetamol; fluoxetine; 17α-ethinylestradiol; marine organisms; bacterial communities; isolates; Micrococcus yunnanensis; adsorption; biodegradation; metabolites

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